Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

CANMET Bells Corners Complex Bldg. 9 c/o 555 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0G1 Canada

Test Report

Product Tested: Prototype 12x36 Catalytic Heater

Test Report No.: C015-D21-4

Client Name: Protective Heat Development Group

Client Address: 2568 Royal Windsor Drive Mississauga, ON L5J 1K7

Client Contact Name: Mr. P. Pietraszek

Condition of sample when rec’d: Undamaged.

Date of receipt of sample:

No. of pages in this report: 08

(including this cover page)

Page serial numbers: 2005101301 to 2005101308 (inclusive) Cover page serial no.: 2005101301

Reviewed by:

G. Lobay, P.Eng., Certification Officer

Date of test report: October 14, 2005

No inference shall be made that the product assessed in this test report complies with any test requirement not specifically provided for herein, or that the product is deemed suitable for any particular end use. Such determinations are not within the scope of this test report.

When duplicated, this report shall be duplicated in its entirety.

Unless otherwise stated herein, all tests were conducted at room ambient temperature (~20oC) and at normal atmospheric pressure (~1 bar). Where more than one test series was conducted on a particular sample on the same date, the tests were conducted in the order in which they appear in this report.

Serial No.: 2005101302
Tec hnicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 2 of 08
Rev iewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4
W itnesses: Client's File:
Client's Name: Protective Heat Development
Group

DEPT. OF NATURAL RESOURCES CANADA CENTRE FOR MINERAL AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CANADIAN EXPLOSIVES RESEARCH LABORATORY

Intent of Test:

This test quickly envelopes an operating catalytic heater with an explosive gas atmosphere, which increases from 0% heptane to the target concentration. The intent is to determine whether the hot surface of the heater will be capable of igniting the explosive gas, when it is subjected to the spectrum of gas concentrations between zero and the target concentration.

Test Apparatus:

Referring to the figure on page 3 of this report, the heater was installed with the long axis vertical in an enclosure measuring approximately 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 2.4 m, along with an air atomizing nozzle and mixing fan.

Product Tested:

The product tested was a prototype unit. Figure ??? shows the control panel for this unit. The active heating surface measured approximately 12 by 36 inches. This unit used propane as fuel, but required a 12 Volt dc supply to start the heater.

Test Procedure:

Prior to the commencement of the tests, the heater was started and allowed to reach equilibrium operating temperature. The heater was fuelled with propane (C.P. grade), supplied via a suitable regulator at the specified inlet pressure. During the heater ignition and warmup period, the front of the test enclosure was left open to atmosphere, i.e. the 2 mil plastic diaphragm was not installed. This particular model of heater uses an electronic control system for ignition. After ignition, the electric heater element associated with the startup system is automatically de-energized.

The amount of heptane liquid required to produce the desired vapour-air concentration was calculated and placed into the reservoir of the air atomizing nozzle.

The plastic diaphragm was installed on the test enclosure, the mixing fan was turned on, and the compressed air supply for the atomizing nozzle was connected to commence heptane vapourization. The nozzle air pressure was 60 psi. The time required to vapourize the liquid was typically one minute or less, depending on quantity. The vapour-air concentration was monitored with a NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) analyzer, and the oxygen content of the atmosphere in the chamber was monitored with a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. The purpose of the NDIR measurements was to confirm the calculated values of liquid required to produce the desired concentration, and the O2 analyzer confirmed that the oxygen content in the closed test chamber was remaining relatively constant for the duration of the test, taking into account the displacement of O2 caused by the heptane. Oxygen to replace that which was consumed by the heater during the test was supplied from compressed air being delivered to the chamber via the nozzle.

Each test was terminated 10 minutes after complete vapourization of the liquid into the chamber.

Serial No.: 2005101303 Technicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 3 of 08 Reviewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4 Witnesses: Client's File: Client's Name: Protective Heat Development Group

Dept. of Natural Resources Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory Hazardous Locations Group

Test Results:

Test No. Heptane Vapour Concentration in air, per cent Amount of Heptane (mL) Was there ignition of the surrounding explosive gas atmosphere? (Note 2) Comments
1 5 594 No Pad visibly red in subdued light
2 5 594 No ditto
3 6.7 797 No ditto
4 6.7 797 No ditto
5 6.7 797 No ditto

Note 1: The lower and upper limits of flammability of heptane are 1.1 to 6.7 per cent by volume in air, respectively. The ignition temperature of heptane is 204o C (by hot surfaces), which is the lowest value listed for Group D gases and vapours, according to the Canadian Electrical Code, and supported by other more extensive references.

Note 2: The heater was in full operation and completely immersed in the explosive heptane vapour-air atmosphere. This atmosphere was under continuous observation and did not explode at any time during any of the five tests that were conducted.

Serial No.: 2005101304
Technicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 4 of 08
Reviewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4
Witnesses: Client's File:
Client's Name: Protective Heat Development
Group

Figure 1 - View of air atomizing nozzle Figure 2 - View of nozzle position. The yellow item is a thermocouple.

Serial No.: 2005101305
Technicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 5 of 08
Reviewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4
Witnesses: Client's File:
Client's Name: Protective Heat Development
Group
Serial No.: 2005101306
Technicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 6 of 08
Reviewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4
Witnesses: Client's File:
Client's Name: Protective Heat Development
Group

Figure 3 - General view, prior to installation of diaphragm on the front of the enclosure.

Serial No.: 2005101307
Technicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 7 of 08
Reviewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4
Witnesses: Client's File:
Client's Name: Protective Heat Development
Group

Figure 4 - Diaphragm about to be installed Figure 5 - Close-up of unit info on control panel

Serial No.: 2005101308
Technicians: C. Stephens, A. Marklew Page: 8 of 08
Reviewed by: G. Lobay Our File: C015-D21-4
Witnesses: Client's File:
Client's Name: Protective Heat Development
Group

===End of Document===Figure 6 - Control panel